In the hazy cloud of cinema history, the “stoner” movie genre emerged as a distinct and
beloved category, capturing the counterculture spirit of the late ’60s and ’70s. Classic films
like “Up in Smoke” and “Dazed and Confused” celebrated the quirks and adventures of
characters immersed in the world of cannabis. However, as we traverse the cinematic
landscape of the 21st century, the prevalence of this genre seems to have faded, leaving us
to ponder: What happened to the “stoner” movie genre?
The Birth of a Genre: Classic Stoner Films
In the late ’60s and early ’70s, a wave of counterculture sentiments swept through American society. This cultural shift found expression in cinema through the emergence of the “stoner” movie genre. Films during this era celebrated nonconformity, rebellion, and the liberating effects of cannabis. Two iconic films that defined this genre were “Up in Smoke” (1978) and “Dazed and Confused” (1993).
“Up in Smoke,” directed by Lou Adler and starring the legendary Cheech Marin and Tommy
Chong, is considered one of the pioneers of the stoner comedy. The film follows the
misadventures of Pedro De Pacas and Man Stoner, played by Chong and Cheech, as they
embark on a road trip laced with humor and, of course, a fair amount of cannabis
“Dazed and Confused,” directed by Richard Linklater, transported audiences to the last day
of high school in 1976. Fueled by a killer soundtrack and an ensemble cast that included
Matthew McConaughey and Ben Affleck, the film captured the essence of the ’70s youth
culture and its affinity for marijuana.
The Rise of the Modern Stoner Film
In the late ’90s and early 2000s, the stoner movie genre experienced a resurgence, but with a modern twist. Films like “Half Baked” (1998) and “Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle” (2004) continued the tradition of celebrating cannabis culture while adapting to the
sensibilities of a new generation.
“Half Baked,” featuring comedian Dave Chappelle, took a comedic look at the consequences
of selling marijuana to raise money for a friend’s bail. The film embraced a mix of absurdity
and wit that resonated with audiences, becoming a cult classic in the process.
“Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle,” directed by Danny Leiner, followed two friends on a
quest for the perfect burgers, navigating a series of comically exaggerated misadventures
fueled by their quest for munchies. The film’s success led to sequels and firmly established a new wave of stoner comedies.
The Changing Landscape: Why Stoner Films Are Less Common Now
Despite their cultural impact and cult followings, stoner films have become less prevalent in
recent years. Several factors contribute to this decline:
Changing Societal Attitudes: The evolving attitudes toward cannabis in society may be one
of the primary reasons for the decline in stoner films. As cannabis legalization gains
momentum globally, the counterculture image associated with these films becomes less
rebellious and more mainstream. Legalization has paved the way for cannabis cultivation at
home, it’s no longer taboo to buy marijuana seeds and grow cannabis at home.
Diversification of Genres: The film industry has diversified, and genres have become more
nuanced and inclusive. Filmmakers are exploring a broader range of themes and
perspectives, moving away from the stereotypical portrayal of stoners.
Cultural Sensitivity: The rise of cultural sensitivity has led to a reevaluation of certain
stereotypes perpetuated by stoner films. Filmmakers today are more conscious of how they
represent various subcultures, including cannabis enthusiasts, and strive for more authentic
and respectful portrayals.
Shift in Comedy Styles: Comedy trends have evolved, and filmmakers are exploring different comedic styles that may not necessarily rely on the stoner trope. Dark humor, satire, and socially conscious comedy have gained prominence in recent years.
Cannabis Mainstreaming: With the increasing acceptance and mainstreaming of cannabis,
the rebellious and countercultural aspects that defined classic stoner films have diminished.
Cannabis is now portrayed in a variety of contexts, from medical dramas to sophisticated
Contemporary Takes on Cannabis: Subdued, Nuanced, and Realistic
While the classic stoner film may be less common, contemporary filmmakers are still
exploring cannabis-related themes in more subdued and nuanced ways. Films like
“Pineapple Express” (2008), directed by David Gordon Green and produced by Judd
Apatow, and “The End of the Tour” (2015), directed by James Ponsoldt, offer more complex
and realistic portrayals of cannabis use.
“Pineapple Express” follows a process server and his dealer as they become entangled in a
drug war after witnessing a murder. The film combines action, comedy, and unexpected
depth, moving beyond the stereotypical stoner comedy.
“The End of the Tour” takes a different approach, delving into the real-life conversations
between journalist David Lipsky and acclaimed author David Foster Wallace during a road
trip. Cannabis use is portrayed as a casual and authentic part of the characters’ lives rather
than a central focus.
The ebbing prominence of the classic stoner movie genre doesn’t mark the conclusion of
cannabis-related storytelling in cinema. Rather, it signifies a shift in the portrayal of cannabis culture, adapting to societal changes and a more sophisticated cinematic landscape. While the era of archetypal stoner films may be in the rearview mirror, the legacy persists in contemporary films that approach cannabis with greater nuance and realism, reflecting the evolving interplay between cinema and society.